@ Xmen lies den Artikel und versuche zu verstehen; SWIFT ist ein Transaktionsmonopol der Banken, die Dritte Instanz.
Klar ist alles digital; aber die Staaten könnten mit Einführung eines Digitaleuro die "Instanz SWIFT" komplett aushebeln und in Zukunft deine Digitaleuro Wallet einfrieren, SWIFT wäre obsolet....
Das spart den Staaten Kosten und bringt die totale Kontrolle; erste Einschränkungen sind schon umgesetzt:
Angenommen Du wärst eine Systemkritische Journalistin und würdest gegen Korruption recherchieren, Artikel schreiben und diese veröffentlichen; der Staat könnte mit nur sehr wenig Aufwand SOFORT Deine Wallet sperren - irgendwas würde sich schon finden...
Wollen wir das? Klar kann der Staat mein Konto pfänden, aber es gibt Pfändungsschutz und auch die Möglichkeit einen Rechtsweg einzuschlagen um den Sachverhalt zu klären.
In den aufgeregten Zeiten von COVID19 haben wir doch selbst erlebt wie schnell es mit der Einschränkung von Grundrechten gehen kann; Versammlungsfreiheit, Meinung-, Religion-, das Recht auf Selbstbestimmung oder auch Berufsfreiheit!
"Rückwärts" geht es schneller als wie wir denken können, ich habe nichts dagegen dass der Staat Geldwäschern oder Hehlern das Handwerk legt; aber ich bin immer sehr skeptisch wenn vor lauter Hysterie mit Kanonen auf Spatzen geschossen wird!
Every day, nearly 11,000 SWIFT member institutions send approximately 33.6 million transactions through the network.1 2 In this article, we will explore what SWIFT does, how it works, and how it makes money.
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT) is member-owned cooperative that provides safe and secure financial transactions for its members.
This payments network allows individuals and businesses to take electronic or card payments even if the customer or vendor uses a different bank that the payee.
SWIFT works by assigning each member institution a unique ID code that identifies not only the bank name but country, city, and branch.
Inside a SWIFT Transaction
SWIFT is a messaging network that financial institutions use to securely transmit information and instructions through a standardized system of codes.
SWIFT assigns each financial organization a unique code that has either eight characters or 11 characters. The code is interchangeably called the bank identifier code (BIC), SWIFT code, SWIFT ID, or ISO 9362 code.3 To understand how the code is assigned, let’s look at Italian bank UniCredit Banca, headquartered in Milan. It has the 8-character SWIFT code UNCRITMM.4
First four characters: the institute code (UNCR for UniCredit Banca)
Next two characters: the country code (IT for the country Italy)
Next two characters: the location/city code (MM for Milan)
Last three characters: optional, but organizations use it to assign codes to individual branches. (The UniCredit Banca branch in Venice may use the code UNCRITMMZZZ.)
Assume a customer of a Bank of America branch in New York wants to send money to his friend who banks at the UniCredit Banca branch in Venice. The New York customer can walk into his Bank of America branch with his friend’s account number and UnicaCredit Banca’s unique SWIFT code for its Venice branch. Bank of America will send a payment transfer SWIFT message to the UniCredit Banca branch over the secure SWIFT network. Once Unicredit Banca receives the SWIFT message about the incoming payment, it will clear and credit the money to the Italian friend’s account.
As powerful as SWIFT is, keep in mind that it is only a messaging system – SWIFT does not hold any funds or securities, nor does it manage client accounts.5
The World Before SWIFT
Prior to SWIFT, Telex was the only available means of message confirmation for international funds transfer. Telex was hampered by low speed, security concerns, and a free message format--in other words, Telex did not have a unified system of codes like SWIFT to name banks and describe transactions. Telex senders had to describe every transaction in sentences which were then interpreted and executed by the receiver. This led to many human errors.6
To circumvent these problems, the SWIFT system was formed in 1973.7 Six major international banks formed a cooperative society to operate a global network that would transfer financial messages in a secure and timely manner.8
Why is SWIFT Dominant?
Within three years of introduction, SWIFT membership had increased to 239 banks across 15 countries.7 Although there are other message services like Fedwire, Ripple, and CHIPS, SWIFT continues to retain its dominant position in the market. Its success is attributed to how it continually adds new message codes to transmit different financial transactions.
While SWIFT started primarily for simple payment instructions, it now sends messages for a wide variety of actions, including security transactions and treasury transactions. Nearly 50% of SWIFT traffic is still for payment-based messages, but 47% now concern security transactions, and the remaining traffic flows to treasury transactions.2
Who Uses SWIFT?
In the beginning, SWIFT founders designed the network to facilitate communication about Treasury and correspondent transactions only. The robustness of the message format design allowed huge scalability through which SWIFT gradually expanded to provide services to the following:9 10 11
Brokerage Institutes and Trading Houses
Asset Management Companies
Corporate Business Houses
Treasury Market Participants and Service Providers
Foreign Exchange and Money Brokers
Services Offered by SWIFT
The SWIFT system offers many services that assist businesses and individuals to complete seamless and accurate business transactions. Some of the services offered include:
SWIFT connections enable access to a variety of applications, which include real-time instruction matching for treasury and forex transactions, banking market infrastructure for processing payment instructions between banks, and securities market infrastructure for processing clearing and settlement instructions for payments, securities, forex, and derivatives transactions.12
SWIFT has recently introduced dashboards and reporting utilities which enable the clients to get a dynamic, real-time view of monitoring the messages, activity, trade flow, and reporting.13 The reports enable filtering based on region, country, message types, and related parameters.
Aimed at services around financial crime compliance, SWIFT offers reporting and utilities like Know Your Customer (KYC), Sanctions, and Anti-Money Laundering (AML).12
Messaging, Connectivity, and Software Solutions
The core of SWIFT business resides in providing a secure, reliable, and scalable network for the smooth movement of messages. Through its various messaging hubs, software, and network connections, SWIFT offers multiple products and services which enable its end clients to send and receive transactional messages.
How Does SWIFT Make Money?
SWIFT is a cooperative society owned by its members.14 Members are categorized into classes based on share ownership.15 All members pay a one-time joining fee plus annual support charges which vary by member classes. SWIFT also charges users for each message based on message type and length. These charges also vary depending upon the bank’s usage volume – different charge tiers exist for banks that generate different volumes of messages.